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Can Math Be Used to Predict an Outbreak?

Bioethics News - Fri, 11/03/2017 - 11:17

(Milwaukee Journal Sentinel) – While sitting in séances and pursuing Marabou storks may seem like extreme measures, the data researchers gather in the field — everything from the size and frequency of bat litters, to the levels of virus in their blood serum — is being used to build mathematical tools that scientists hope will achieve a landmark in human health. They want to predict an infectious outbreak before it happens.

West Virginia Cities Sue Accrediting Group over Painkillers

Bioethics News - Fri, 11/03/2017 - 11:13

(STAT News) – Several West Virginia municipalities are suing The Joint Commission, claiming the Chicago-based health care accreditation group downplayed the dangers of prescription painkillers and helped fuel addictions. The Charleston Gazette-Mail reports that the cities of Charleston, Huntington and Kenova and the town of Ceredo filed the class-action lawsuit Thursday in Charleston.

Red Cross Apologise for Losing $5m of Ebola Funds to Fraud

Bioethics News - Fri, 11/03/2017 - 11:08

(BBC) – The Red Cross has confirmed that more than $5m (£3.8m) of aid money was lost to fraud and corruption during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa. Auditors found overpriced supplies, salaries for non-existent aid workers and fake customs bills. The disease, which raged between 2014 and 2016, claimed at least 10,000 lives. It required a massive humanitarian operation costing hundreds of millions of dollars to bring it under control.

Baby Gene Therapy Study Offers Hope for Fatal Muscle Disease

Bioethics News - Fri, 11/03/2017 - 10:59

(ABC News) – A first attempt at gene therapy for a disease that leaves babies unable to move, swallow and, eventually, breathe has extended the tots’ lives, and some began to roll over, sit and stand on their own, researchers reported Wednesday. Only 15 babies with spinal muscular atrophy received the experimental gene therapy, but researchers in Ohio credited the preliminary and promising results to replacing the infants’ defective gene early — in the first few months of life, before the neuromuscular disease destroyed too many key nerve cells.

Doubling Down on Gene Therapy for Heart Failure

Bioethics News - Fri, 11/03/2017 - 10:57

(MIT Technology Review) – For over a decade, scientists have been trying to reverse heart failure by delivering a new gene to the heart that makes it better at pumping blood and supplying the body with oxygen. A major clinical trial testing this gene therapy flopped in 2015. But as gene therapy has finally become a reality for other diseases after years in the making, there’s now renewed interest in trying it again for heart failure.

Stem Cell Subset Source of All Blood Cells, Basis of Bone Marrow Transplant Success

Bioethics News - Fri, 11/03/2017 - 10:47

(GEN) – A new blood system isn’t created from scratch—just something close to it. A single type of stem cell, a new study demonstrates, can fully repopulate the bone marrow and give rise to all the cell lineages that constitute a complete blood system. This blood-forming stem cell is distinguished by three cell-surface markers—or rather the presence of two markers and the absence of a third. By heeding these markers, scientists may improve transplantation procedures, as well develop better gene therapy and gene-editing approaches.

Bogus Breast Cancer Tests Are Putting Women’s Lives in Danger

Bioethics News - Thu, 11/02/2017 - 11:57

(Quartz) – Last week, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about advertisements for thermograms falsely claiming the technology could be as good or better than mammograms. In 1982, the FDA approved thermograms for breast-cancer screening—but only in conjunction with regular mammograms. Although thermography is not harmful in and of itself, there’s no scientific evidence that actually can detect breast cancer on its own. Since 2016, the FDA has issued two warnings to companies advertising preventative breast cancer screenings.

Mail-Order CRISPR Kits Allow Absolutely Anyone to Hack DNA

Bioethics News - Thu, 11/02/2017 - 11:52

(Scientific American) – CRISPR–Cas9 (or CRISPR, for short) has given scientists a powerful way to make precise changes to DNA—in microbes, plants, mice, dogs and even in human cells. The technique may help researchers engineer drought-resistance crops, develop better drugs, cure genetic disorders, eradicate infectious diseases and much more. Ask any biologist, and they’ll likely tell you that CRISPR is revolutionary. It’s cheap and effective, and in many cases, it works much better than older methods for making genetic modifications. Biologists will also tell you that CRISPR is very easy to use. But what does “easy to use” mean?

Workers Displaced by Automation Should Try a New Job: Caregiver

Bioethics News - Thu, 11/02/2017 - 11:44

(Wired) – So what can help? There is a category of jobs today that is critical to our society. Many of us will employ the services of these workers, but these positions are all-too-often held in low esteem with poor pay and minimal career advancement prospects. Some are designing so-called social robots to take these jobs. Yet, these are jobs we categorically do not want machines doing for us, though machines could potentially assist humans. I am speaking of caregiving.

Alnylam RNAi Drug Reverses Progress of Rare Fatal Disease: Study

Bioethics News - Thu, 11/02/2017 - 11:38

(Reuters) – More than half of patients with a rare, rapidly progressing fatal genetic disorder experienced significant improvement after being treated with an Alnylam Pharmaceutical Inc drug that uses gene silencing technology, according to results of a late stage study released on Thursday. The drug, patisiran, was being tested against the life-shortening condition called hereditary ATTR (hATTR) amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, which affects an estimated 50,000 people worldwide. It is being developed in partnership with Sanofi.

National Study Identifies Best Method for Achieving a Healthy IVF Birth

Bioethics News - Thu, 11/02/2017 - 11:25

(Medical Xpress) – Research presented today at the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) by scientists from the University of Colorado and Duke University concludes that fresh donor eggs during in vitro fertilization (IVF) provide a higher chance of implantation when compared with donor eggs that have been cryopreserved. In addition, the study lends credence to the practice of transferring just one embryo during IVF to avoid complications that accompany multiple births, bucking the historically prevalent method of transferring two or more embryos to increase the odds of pregnancy.

Why AI Is Still Waiting for Its Ethics Transplant

Bioethics News - Thu, 11/02/2017 - 11:15

(Wired) – There’s no lack of reports on the ethics of artificial intelligence. But most of them are lightweight—full of platitudes about “public-private partnerships” and bromides about putting people first. They don’t acknowledge the knotty nature of the social dilemmas AI creates, or how tough it will be to untangle them. The new report from the AI Now Institute isn’t like that. It takes an unblinking look at a tech industry racing to reshape society along AI lines without any guarantee of reliable and fair results.

Should We Have Separated Conjoined Twins, Knowing One Would Die?

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 15:20

(STAT News) – Our pediatric ethics committee reviewed numerous arguments and readings, including former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop’s 1977 case of conjoined twins with a shared heart. Our daily mission as physicians is to do no harm, ensure a child’s best interests, and honor a parent’s rights to make decisions for that child. How we could accomplish all three was something we dispassionately debated for endless hours over multiple weeks. Did we have a duty to act, or should we allow nature to take its course? Who decides what to do?

Infusions of Young Blood Tested in Patients with Dementia

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 15:15

(Nature) – The first controlled, but controversial and small, clinical trial of giving young blood to people with dementia has reported that the procedure appears safe. It has also hinted that it may even produce modest improvements in the daily lives of people who have Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers who conducted the trial and others caution that the results are based on just 18 people and therefore are only a first step in exploring this type of treatment. “This is a really very small trial and the results should not be over-interpreted,” says Tony Wyss-Coray, a neurologist at Stanford University in California who led the study. The trial was conducted by his start-up company Alkahest, which is based in San Carlos, California.

Electronic Health Records Point to CT Scanner as Infection Source

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 15:13

(Reuters) – Researchers used electronic health records to hunt down the source of a potentially deadly hospital-acquired infection at the University of California, San Francisco.  The culprit: a CT scanner in the hospital’s emergency department, according to a new report in JAMA Internal Medicine online October 23.  The study was the first to use time and location stamps on electronic records to map patients throughout the hospital and track the course of an infectious agent.

Eugenics 2.0: We’re at the Dawn of Choosing Embryos by Health, Height, and More

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 15:09

(MIT Technology Review) – IVF clinics already test the DNA of embryos to spot rare diseases, like cystic fibrosis, caused by defects in a single gene. But these “preimplantation” tests are poised for a dramatic leap forward as it becomes possible to peer more deeply at an embryo’s genome and create broad statistical forecasts about the person it would become. The advance is occurring, say scientists, thanks to a growing flood of genetic data collected from large population studies.

Bitter CRISPR Patent War Intensifies

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 14:54

(Nature) – The long-running battle over US patents for CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing continues. On 25 October, the Broad Institute of Cambridge, Massachusetts, filed a fresh set of arguments with the US government to defend a key patent. That action helps to set the stage for a second round of oral arguments in the unusually vitriolic case, which observers expect to take place in early 2018. A decision is anticipated to follow shortly thereafter. In the filing, lawyers for the Broad and its collaborators argued that its opponent, a team that includes the University of California, Berkeley, has failed to provide new evidence that would undermine the legitimacy of the Broad’s patent. The lawyers also used the University of California’s own press releases as a sign that the case should be thrown out.

Genomic Studies Track Early Hints of Cancer

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 14:52

(Nature) – After years of studying advanced cancers, researchers are now training their DNA sequencers on precancerous growths to learn more about how they develop into the full-blown disease. A three-year pilot project funded this month by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) as part of the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative, will take this approach with lung, breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer. Investigators hope to create a ‘pre-cancer genome atlas’ by sequencing DNA from precancerous growths, in addition to sequencing RNA from individual tumour cells and identifying the immune cells that have infiltrated the lesions.

Recovery from “Brain Death”?

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 14:36

(Huffington Post) – The belief that a brain that has died will not ever recover led to the “Brain Death” statutes which allowed for a legal declaration of death for a person who meets certain clinical and laboratory findings indicative of brain death. These statutes allowed for the harvesting of organs for transplant purposes from donors who still had a functioning cardiopulmonary system. Previously, a person had to lose the heart activity in order to be declared dead. This meant that many otherwise useful organs were lost for transplant purposes.

Social Media Data Use Needs Tighter Research Controls, Experts Say

Bioethics News - Wed, 11/01/2017 - 14:24

(PhysOrg) – Information shared on social media is being regularly used in research projects without users’ consent, a study suggests. Experts have called for tighter control of the practice, with fresh guidelines needed to ensure personal data is being used appropriately. Researchers at the University of Edinburgh say ethics frameworks around consent, privacy and ownership for such studies are not keeping pace with technological developments.

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