Below are critical citations from the Chimeras section of the Pillars of Personhood educational handbook. If you have additional questions about content within this section, please contact us at
House of Commons Science and Technology Committee Report. Government proposals for the regulation of hybrid and chimera embryos. 2007. HC 272-1

Roth TL et al. Survival of sheep x goat hybrid inner cell masses after injection into ovine embryos. Biol Reprod 1989; 41(4):675-682

Balaban E. Changes in multiple brain regions underlie species differences in a complex, congenital behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94(5):2001-2006

Animal procedures committee report on biotechnology. 2001. para 57

Rossiianov K, Beyond Species: Il'ya Ivanov and His Experiments on Cross-Breeding Humans with Anthropoid Apes, Science in Context 2002;15 (2): 277-316

Canadian Assisted Human Reproduction Act 2004.

Australian Prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002.

Waterston RH et al. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome Nature 2002; 420: 520-562

Nicholson JK et al. The challenges of modeling mammalian biocomplexity. Nat Biotechnol 2004; 22(10):1268-1274

Bianchi DW et al. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci USA 1996; 93: 705-8

Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005), 55.

Karpowicz P et al. Developing Human-Nonhuman Chimeras in Human Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues and Boundaries, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15.2 (June 2005): 107-134

Animal procedures committee report on biotechnology. 2001. para 55

Wyatt J. Matters of Life and Death. IVP/CMF, 1998